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Pentronic News' Technical Articles - Archive

Here you have the possibility to find answers to your questions. Click the proper link and choose among the technical articles that have been published in the Pentronic News. The issue containing the article is shown as a pdf-file. The background of the articles often are questions from our customers.

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This Read-more symbol tells you that we are publishing an expanded article from the Pentronic News which we have completed with the ambition to satisfy anyone particularly interested in the subject. At the same time the ordinary reader is able to get a quick overview from the basic article.

Customer magazine article


Training in temperature measurement  
Lesson 1, The nature and history of temperature 2017-1 page 7
Lesson 2, Thermodynamics and heat transfer 2017-2 page 7
Lesson 3, Traceable temperature measurement 2017-3 page 7
Lesson 4, Temperature sensors 2017-4 page 7
Lesson 5, Thermocouples and Pt100 2018-1 page 7
Lesson 6, The thermocouple – Its construction and applications 2018-2 page 7
Lesson 6, The thermocouple – Its construction and applications 2018-2 page 7
Lesson 8, Quality assurance and calibration 2018-4 page 7


Examples of heat transfer

The “perfect egg”- a measurement challenge 2018-4 page 6
Thermal problem – heating glögg 2017-4 page 6
The hot electronics box. 2016-3 page 3
Sensor placement and response time. 2016-1 page 3
Does a tea cosy keep the tea hot longer? 2015-4 page 3
How does a globe thermometer work? 2015-3 page 3
Exhaust gas temperature during startup is hard to determine in catalytic converters. 2015-2 page 3
Readmore Measurement error when gas flow temperature increases 1
2015-1 page 3
How cold are the Christmas buffet dishes? 2014-5 page 3
The temperatures of refrigerant in a geothermal heat pump 2014-4 page 3
Surface-mounted sensors as good as those in thermowells 2014-3 page 3
How cold is it in the refrigerator? 2014-2 page 3
Measuring water temperature from the outside of a half-full plastic pip 2014-1 page 3
Can a wine cooler work without ice? 2013-4 page 3
Readmore What does the sensor in a waste incinerator measure?
2013-3 page 3
Readmore Leave an air gap between instrument box and hot wall
2013-2 page 3
Does the air get colder when the wind blows? 2013-1 page 3
Don't burn your Christmas porridge 2012-4 page 3


Readmore Probe diameter influences temperature measurements


2012-3 page 3

Large measurement errors with hand-held surface temperature sensors 2012-2 page 3


Readmore Measurement error during ramping


2012-1 page 3

Warming the Christmas cheese takes time 2011-5 page 3


Readmore Critical insulation thickness for surface mount sensors


2011-4 page 3

Drying laundry by the sea 2011-3 page 3
Temperature in an air jet 2011-2 page 3
Measuring temperature via pressure 2011-1 page 3
Does the heat from my hand affect the wine in my glass? 2010-6 page 3
What does a car's outdoor thermometer actually measure? 2010-5 page 3
Does a table fan reduce the room temperature? 2010-4 page 3
An old-fashioned butter cooler 2010-3 page 3
Why aren't there icicles on every house in winter? 2010-2 page 3
When is a radiation shield useful? 2010-1 page 3
Does coffee stay hotter in a white or black mug? 2009-6 page 3
Is a surface probe reliable? 2009-5 page 3
A surprising mixed air temperature 2009-4 page 3
How an ice house worked 2009-3 page 3
Condensed steam - a problem for both spectacles and temp. sensors 2009-2 page 3
Baked ice cream - impossible? 2009-1 page 3
Chilly castles 2008-2 page 3
Do wet temperature sensors react slowly? 2008-1 page 3


Installation and use of temperature sensors

Surface sensors and varying fluid temperatures 2018-2 page 6
Surface sensors and build-up inside a pipe 2018-1 page 6
New sensor measures adiabatic surface temperature and incident radiation (PTHFM) 2017-1 page 2
Measuring air temperature with a sheathed thermocouple 2017-1 page 6
Sooty sensor 2016-2 page 3
Standards for temperature sensors and wake analysis. 2015-3 page 4
Supporting tubes give strength, a fast response time and simplified installation 2014-2 page 2
External measurement of internal temperature 2013-4 page 4
The effect of poor insulation on temperature sensors 2011-4 page 4
A thermocouple or Pt100 sensor, which should I choose? 2011-3 page 4
Different ways to measure surface temperature 2010-5 page 4
Practical ways to influence response times (2) 2010-3 page 4
Calculating response time for different conditions? (1) 2010-2 page 4
"Softer" values increasingly important to temperature sensors 2009-6 page 2 bottom
Too shallow an immersion depth causes measurement error 2009-5 page 4
One hole for nine measuring points 2009-5 page 2
Lower gas emissions give more precise readings 2009-4 page 2
Bananas laid the foundation for performance in mass production 2009-3 page 2
The secret behind custom-made sensors 2009-2 page 2 bottom
Smaller = easier to use (compression fittings) 2009-2 page 3 bottom
"Bombproof" and classified for marine measurements 2009-1 page 2 bottom
The world's most copied Pentronic sensor 2008-2 page 2 bottom


Properties and sources of error by thermocouples

Can a thermocouple be used as a flow meter? 2019-1 page 6
Readmore Can a thermocouple be used as a flow meter?
2019-1 page 6
Is it possible to estimate how dirt in a hen shed affects the measurement error? 2018-3 page 6
Measuring the outdoor temperatur 2017-3 page 6
Mismatched thermocouple cables cause measurement error. 2016-3 page 4
What is the significance of the extension cable’s length? 2016-2 page 4
Keep thermocouple extension cables outside hot zones! 2016-1 page 4
Temperature limits in types K and N thermocouples 2014-5 page 4
The economic advantages of noble metal thermocouples 2014-4 page 4
New IEC standard for thermocouples 2014-3 page 2
Type N thermocouples give smaller calibration errors 2014-2 page 4
Cold junction – the hidden measuring junction 2013-2 page 2
Which thermocouple type should I choose for high temperatures? 2012-3 page 4
Install new thermocouples instead of recalibrating 2012-1 page 4
The right extension cable is important when measuring outdoors 2011-2 page 4
"Extension leads" with thermocouples - good or bad? 2010-6 page 4
Hysteresis in type K thermocouples 2010-1 page 4
Sheathed thermocouples 2009-2 page 4
Isolated measuring junctions are safest 2009-1 page 4
Selecting a handheld surface temperature sensor 2008-2 page 4
A Pt100 or a thermocouple, that is the question 2008-1 page 4


Properties and sources of error by Pt100s (RTD)

What affects a Pt100 sensor’s precision? 2015-2 page 4
The parts of a process sensor 2015-1 page 4
The resistor determines the accuracy of industrial Pt100s 2013-1 page 4
Four-wire Pt100 sensors are always more accurate than two-wire Pt1000 sensors 2012-2 page 4
New standard for Pt100 sensors is an update to today's reality 2009-4 page 4
A Pt100 or a thermocouple, that is the question 2008-1 page 4


Contactless temperature measurement (IR)

IR pyrometers: specify your needs before you buy 2013-3 page 4
Fast response crucial when detoxifying hazardous waste 2011-2 page 1
A sister company with cutting edge expertise in IR-pyrometry 2009-3 page 2 bottom
Selecting a handheld surface temperature sensor 2008-2 page 4


Transmitters and instrumentation

Smart sensors function more reliably at a lower total cost 2016-2 page 2
Temperature sensors that give cheaper and better measurement. 2016-1 page 2
Smart temperature sensors from Pentronic. 2015-4 page 1
Sharpen your temperature measurement chain. 2015-4 page 4
Temperature drift in temperature instruments 2013-2 page 4
Uniquely precise temperature sensors 2013-1 page 3
Pentronic's miniature transmitter - the two-year track record... 2011-4 page 2
Smart transmitters give better measurement accuracy 2010-4 page 4
New transmitter exceeds expectations (micro transmitter) 2010-3 page 2 bottom
3A certified with better performance (micro transmitter) 2010-2 page 2 bottom


Calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty

Customised sensor with in-situ tube makes calibration easier 2018-3 page 4
Traceable measurement is the basis for automatic quality assurance 2017-3 page 2
Two routes to traceable calibration 2017-3 page 4
New standard for sheathed thermocouples. 2016-3 page 3
All brands welcome at the laboratory 2015-1 page 3
Trainining and new technology make in-house calibration interesting 2014-5 page 2
Tolerance indications are a perishable commodity
so calibrate to know about the uncertainty
2014-4 page 3
In situ calibration of types K and N thermocouples at high temperatures (2) 2014-3 page 4
Type N thermocouples give smaller calibration errors (1) 2014-2 page 4
Precise calibration requires identical temperature sensors 2014-1 page 4
Batch calibration is good but individual testing is best 2013-2 page 3 bottom
Measurement uncertainty increases in used thermocouples 2013-1 page 2 bottom
Traceability requires known measurement uncertainty 2012-4 page 2 bottom
Important information in a calibration certificate 2012-3 page 3 bottom
Better measurement with field calibration 2012-2 page 2 top
Rely on the tolerance limits or calibrate 2011-5 page 4
Customer-friendly traceability services 2011-5 page 3 bottom
System calibration gives far higher precision 2011-4 page 3 bottom
New measuring instrument equipped for both lab use and field work 2011-3 page 2
System calibration of sensors and transmitters 2011-1 page 4
Accreditation levels, not nationality, make the difference... 2010-6 page 3 bottom
New system of comparative inspections 2010-5 page 3 bottom
Accreditation the best proof of competence 2010-4 page 3 bottom
Testing and fine-tuning measurement performance 2010-1 page 2 bottom
What can a calibration certificate tell you? 2009-6 page 4
Calibration basics: (1) Measurement error and uncertainty 2009-3 page 4